Introduction to the Grasses, Sedges, and Rushes of Palm Beach and Martin Counties, Florida

This web site is the “second edition” or our original site developed in 2007.  The old site in ancient software got too rickety to sustain.  In 2014 John transferred the site to Dreamweaver software, and we used the opportunity to re-edit, correct, and refine.

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Based at the Horticulture Department of Palm Beach State College ( in Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, this project grew out of the mutual efforts of John Bradford, June Wilkinson, and George Rogers to learn the local grassish flora. 

Unless there is a specific reason to deviate, classification and nomenclature generally follow Flora of North America (printed version available on-line at, and with a "Grass Manual on the Web" []).  Also see annotation to Hitchcock citation below.

We have used:

Aliscioni, Sandra S., A molecular phylogeny of Panicum (Poaceae: Paniceae): tests of monophyly and phylogenetic placement within the Panicoideae. Amer. J. Bot. 2003. 90: 796-821.

Ball, P.W., A. A. Reznicek, & D. F. Murray. Cyperaceae. Family 210. Vol. 23. Cyperaceae in FNA and Juncaceae Family 209. Vol. 22 by R. Brooks & S. Clemants

Barkworth, et. al. See Hitchcock citation

Clayton, W. D., K. T. Harman, and H. Williamson. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora.

Fairchild Tropical Garden Virtual Herbarium

Gould, F. & C. Clark. Dichanthelium (Poaceae) in the U.S. and Canada. J. Missouri Bot. Gard. 65: 1088-1132. 1978.

Gould, F. W. & R. B. Shaw. Grass Systematics 2nd edition. Texas A & M Univ. Press. 1983

_______, M. A. Ali, and D. E. Fairbrothers. A revision of Echinochloa in the United States. Amer. Midland Nat. 87: 36-59. 1972.

Hall, D. W. The Grasses of Florida. Univ. Florida. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. 1978.

Hansen, B. & R. P. Wunderlin. Synopsis of Dichanthelium (Poaceae) in Florida. J. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75: 1637-1657. 1988.

Hitchcock, A. S. Manual of the Grasses of the United States. 2nd ed. Revised by Agnes Chase. 1051 pp., U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, DC. 1950. A contemporary sequel to this, allied with the Flora of North America treatment is: Barkworth, M. W., L. Anderson., K. Capels, A. Long & M. B. Piep. Manual of Grasses of North America. 640 pp. Utah State Univ. 2007.

Holder, A., and G. Rogers. The Grasses of Barbados. Sida 1999: 1-78.

The Institute for Regional Conservation

Tucker, G. The genera of Cyperaceae in the Southeastern United States. Jour.  Arnold  Arb. 68: 361-445. 1987.

Wunderlin, R. P., & B. F. Hansen. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. 2nd ed. v + 787 + i pp. Univ. Press of Florida. Gainesville & other cities. 2003.

Yarlett, L. L. Common Grasses of Florida and the Southeast. viii + 168 pp. Florida Native Plant Society. 1996.


People Involved in this Project

John Bradford is an avid naturalist,  amateur taxonomist, and photographer. He is a volunteer with the Martin County Environmentally Sensitive Lands, co-authored with George Rogers a Guide to the Native Plants of Palm Beach County used for classes, and has contributed to the PBSC Manual of Cultivated Plants for South Florida. He is responsible for the best of the photography in the project, including all macrophotography and for color-enhanced pictures in the glossary.

George Rogers is Professor of Horticulture at Palm Beach State College. His interest in warm climate grasses extends back to a study of the grasses of Barbados with student Ayanda Holder (citation above).

June Wilkinson is a Horticulturist at Palm Beach State College, and founder of the college's Medicinal Plants Garden. She is a graduate of the University of Florida, and of the Horticulture Program at Palm Beach State College.

Various experts have helped at different points in time.  We are grateful to David Black, Larry Datnoff, Garrett Davidse, James Kimbrough, Anton Reznicek, S. Galen Smith, and Steve Woodmansee for expertise and generosity. Shirley Denton ( allowed us to use some of her photographs. Jonathan Dickinson State Park and Savannas Preserve State Park have hosted our grass research and workshops.


George and David Black at DuPuis


John and Beth Burger at DePuis